The Structural Relationship among Personality, Negative Emotion, Motivation, Career Maturity on Mathematical Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students
김정훈 Kim Jung Hoon , 이문수 Lee Moonsoo
25(4) 279295, 2022
김정훈 Kim Jung Hoon , 이문수 Lee Moonsoo
DOI: JANT Vol.25(No.4) 279295, 2022
This study was conducted to present implications for mathematics education by identifying the structural relationship among personality, negative emotion, motivation, and career maturity that affects elementary school student's mathematical academic achievement. The participants conveniently sampled 179 students, from 4th to 6th graders enrolled in the same elementary school, and data on their psychological variables were collected in the form of secondary data. The hypothetical structural equation model established based on prior studies was verified with a twostage approach based on the collected data. It was confirmed that construct validity and construct reliability were secured through assessing the measurement model. In addition, as a result of analyzing the path coefficient of the final structural equation model, five paths were found to be significant: 'personality→motivation', 'personality →career maturity', 'negative emotion→motivation', and 'negative motivation→mathematical academic achievement'. In particular, the path of 'negative emotion→negative motivation→mathematics academic achievement' that can be confirmed through the results needs to moderate negative emotions to improve mathematical academic achievement, and at this time, negative motivation should be considered together.

An Analysis of the Word Problem in Elementary Mathematics Textbook from a Practical Contextual Perspective
강윤지 Kang Yunji
25(4) 297312, 2022
강윤지 Kang Yunji
DOI: JANT Vol.25(No.4) 297312, 2022
Word problems can lead learners to more meaningfully learn mathematics by providing learners with various problemsolving experiences and guiding them to apply mathematical knowledge to the context. This study attempted to provide implications for the textbook writing and teaching and learning process by examining the word problem of elementary mathematics textbooks from the perspective of practical context. The word problem of elementary mathematics textbooks was examined, and elementary mathematics textbooks in the United States and Finland were referenced to find specific alternatives. As a result, when setting an unnatural context or subject to the word problem in elementary mathematics textbooks, artificial numbers were inserted or verbal expressions and illustrations were presented unclearly. In this case, it may be difficult for learners to recognize the context of the word problem as separate from real life or to solve the problem by understanding the content required by the word problem. In the future, it is necessary to organize various types of word problems in practical contexts, such as setting up situations in consideration of learners in textbooks, actively using illustrations and diagrams, and organizing verbal expressions and illustrations more clearly.

The Characteristics of the Questions Presented in Shapes Area and Measurement Area of Elementary Mathematics Textbooks
도주원 Do Joowon
25(4) 313328, 2022
도주원 Do Joowon
DOI: JANT Vol.25(No.4) 313328, 2022
The purpose of this study is to understand the characteristics of the questions presented in shapes area and Measurement area of elementary mathematics textbooks. For this purpose, the types of questions presented in shapes area and measurement area of elementary mathematics textbooks and their working functions were comparatively analyzed by area and by grade cluster. As a result of the analysis, the number of questions per lesson increased sharply in the 3rd and 4th grade cluster compared to the 1st and 2nd grade cluster in both shapes area and measurement area. In these two areas, the most common reasoning questions are presented. It is presented relatively more in measurement area than in shapes area. There was a clear difference between the types of questions presented in shapes area and measurement area. In common with the two areas, questions mainly were acted as a function to help students learn to reason mathematically, a function to help students to determine whether something is mathematically correct, and a function to help students learn to conjecture, invent, and solve problem. The characteristics of the questions identified in this study can provide teaching/learning implications for the design and application of the questions suitable for the guidance of shapes area and measurement area, and can be used as a reference material when writing mathematics textbooks.

An Analysis on Teaching of Data Collection in Elementary School Mathematics Textbooks for 3rd and 4th Grades from the Perspective of Statistical Problem Solving Education
탁병주 Tak Byungjoo , 고은성 Ko Eunsung
25(4) 329341, 2022
탁병주 Tak Byungjoo , 고은성 Ko Eunsung
DOI: JANT Vol.25(No.4) 329341, 2022
Data collection is crucial to the process of statistical problem solving since it influences the quality of statistical data. However, there is little instruction on data collection in the Korean mathematics curriculum. In this study, we examined how the data were collected and how the data collection method was taught in the Korean mathematics textbooks for 3rd and 4th grades. As a result, the data appeared in these textbooks were collected by using a variety of methods, including surveys, experiments, observations, and secondary data collections. There were not enough instructions on experiments and observations, compared to surveys and secondary data collection. Additionally, as each textbook works with a distinct contents while teaching data collection, it is expected that there would be variations in the levels that students learn in relation to data collection. Based on these findings, we draw some discussion points to determine how to improve the mathematics curriculum in order to effectively teach data collection in the elementary school.

South Korean Elementary Teachers’ Perception about Students’ Mathematics Listening Ability
김리나 Kim Rina
25(4) 343360, 2022
김리나 Kim Rina
DOI: JANT Vol.25(No.4) 343360, 2022
In mathematics classes, the verbal explanation may contain diverse mathematical concepts and principles in short sentences. It may also include mathematics symbols and terms that might not be used in everyday life. Therefore, students may need particular listening ability in order to understand and participate in mathematics communication. Unlike general listening, the listening ability for mathematics classes may require student to integrate their mathematical and linguistic knowledge. The aim of this study is to reveal the subdomains of listening ability for mathematics classes in a elementary school. I categorized listening ability for mathematics classes in a elementary school from the literature. The categories of listening ability for mathematics are Interpretive Listening, Evaluative Listening, Hermeneutic Listening, Selective Listening, Pretend Listening, and Ignored Listening. In order to develop a framework for understanding listening ability for mathematics classes, I investigated a hierarchy of 412 South Korean elementary teachers’ perception. Through a webbased survey, the teachers were asked to rank order their beliefs about and students’ listening ability. Findings show that teachers’ perceptions about listening ability for mathematics classes are divergent from current research trends. South Korean elementary teachers perceived Interpretive Listening as the most important listening.

An Analysis of Vocabulary Rating and Types in Elementary Mathematics Textbooks for Grade 12
박미미 Park Mimi , 이은정 Lee Eunjung
25(4) 361375, 2022
박미미 Park Mimi , 이은정 Lee Eunjung
DOI: JANT Vol.25(No.4) 361375, 2022
In this study, the vocabularies in elementary mathematics textbooks for grade 12 were analyzed according to 9degree of semantic system. Also, the types of vocabulary were analyzed using general academic words, mathematics specific concept words, and mathematics general concept words. As a result, percentages of 1degree and 2degree vocabulary was the most in both grade 1 and 2 mathematics textbooks. It also shows that some of general academic words were 3degree vocabulary and some of mathematics specific concept words were either unregistered or 1degree vocabulary. In particular, general academic words, which are 3degree vocabulary, may be unfamiliar to 1st and 2nd grade students. Therefore, students should be given the opportunity to guess and understand the contextual meaning of general academic words from the given contexts in textbooks. The frequency of use of mathematics general concept words in grade 2 textbook increased significantly compared to grade 1 textbook. Since mathematics general concept words are academic and technical vocabulary they should be taught explicitly. Based on the results of this study, implications for vocabulary instruction in mathematics textbooks were discussed.

Weight as Knowledge to be taught according to Didactic Transposition Theory
최지선 Choi Jisun
25(4) 377394, 2022
최지선 Choi Jisun
DOI: JANT Vol.25(No.4) 377394, 2022
Criticism has been raised that the way of teaching weights in the 3rd and 4th graders of elementary school is different between the 2015 revised math curriculum and the 2015 revised science curriculum, causing confusion among elementary school teachers and students. This study tried to confirm the social recognition that should be considered in the process of didactic transformation which means transformation from knowledge to used into knowledge to taught and to compare the variations of didactic transformations differently according to didactic intentions. The research analyzes and synthesizes the root of the meaning of weight, weight in the international standard system of units SI, weight implemented in Korean mathematics curriculum and textbooks, Singaporean mathematics curriculum and textbooks, USA mathematics curriculum and textbooks, and Korean science curriculum and textbooks. Through this analysis, a pedagogical perspective on how to define and teach weight in elementary school as knowledge to be taught was derived.

Analysis of Word Problems in the Domain of ‘Numbers and Operations’ of Textbooks from the Perspective of ‘Nominalization’
장혜원 Chang Hyewon , 강윤지 Kang Yunji
25(4) 395410, 2022
장혜원 Chang Hyewon , 강윤지 Kang Yunji
DOI: JANT Vol.25(No.4) 395410, 2022
Nominalization is one of the grammatical metaphors, and it is the representation of verbal meaning through noun equivalent phrases. In mathematical word problems, texts using nominalization have both the advantage of clarifying the object to be noted in the mathematization stage, and the disadvantage of complicating sentence structure, making it difficult to understand the sentences and hindering the experience of the full steps in mathematical modelling. The purpose of this study is to analyze word problems in the textbooks from the perspective of nominalization, a linguistic element, and to derive implications in relation to students' difficulties during solving the word problems. To this end, the types of nominalization of 341 word problems from the content domain of ‘Numbers and Operations’ of elementary math textbooks according to the 2015 revised national curriculum were analyzed in four aspects: gradeband group, main class and unit assessment, specialized class, and mathematical expression required word problems. Based on the analysis results, didactical implications related to the linguistic expression of the mathematical word problems were derived.

An Analysis of Improvement and Compilation Issues of Mathematics Textbooks for Elementary Schools: Focusing on the 2015 Revised Elementary School Mathematics Textbook Government Published
이화영 Lee Hwa Young
25(4) 411431, 2022
이화영 Lee Hwa Young
DOI: JANT Vol.25(No.4) 411431, 2022
In this paper, implications for future curriculum compilation were sought by analyzing the process and results of compiling books for elementary school mathematics textbooks government published according to the 2015 revised curriculum. The 2015 revised elementary mathematics textbooks government published was operated with a systematic compilation system so that academia and school field experts across the country could demonstrate their expertise. As improvements in content, the unit and time to strengthen basic computational skills were increased, and the mathematical concept and principle introduction method and algorithm presentation method were improved, and the internal connection between contents was strengthened. The learning period was adjusted, such as moving and arranging contents that are difficult for students to understand to the upper semester or the upper grade. In the 1st and 2nd graders, the amount of reading was drastically reduced to suit the students' level of Korean, and sentences and vocabulary were improved, and instructions were briefly revised. As for editing and design improvements, illustrations of each unit's introduction and contextual pictures were presented in detail, and the characters in the textbook were consistently presented across all grades, giving children characters a role to actively participate in learning in the textbook. In the process of compiling, the media, the National Assembly, and civic groups raised opinions that sentences and vocabulary in firstyear textbooks are more difficult than students' level of Hangeul education, that reducing textbooks makes it difficult for students to understand. Accordingly, efforts to improve textbook compilation and the results were viewed. Through the overall analysis as above, for future compilation of stateauthored textbooks and certified textbooks, a plan to improve textbook compilation for students and teachers and a plan to operate compilation was proposed.

Improvement of Elementary Instruction via a Teacher Community: Focused on the Implementation of Five Practices for Orchestrating Productive Mathematics Discussions
방정숙 Pang Jeongsuk , 김주현 Kim Juhyeon , 최예원 Choi Yewon , 곽은애 Kwak Eunae , 김정원 Kim Jeongwon
25(4) 433457, 2022
방정숙 Pang Jeongsuk , 김주현 Kim Juhyeon , 최예원 Choi Yewon , 곽은애 Kwak Eunae , 김정원 Kim Jeongwon
DOI: JANT Vol.25(No.4) 433457, 2022
An effective teacher community helps the participating teachers improve their instructional quality. This study reports a teacher community consisting of 15 elementary school teachers and one teacher educator. This paper analyzed 15 mathematics lessons in which the teachers implemented the five practices for orchestrating productive mathematics discussions by Smith and Stein (2018) based on the gradespecific discussions as well as the whole community’s discussions. The results of this study showed that the overall levels of each practice either increased gradually or maintained at the highest Level 4, as mathematics lessons had been implemented. Specifically, the following practices were quite successful: setting goals for a lesson, selecting an appropriate task, anticipating student responses, and selecting student solutions. However, both sequencing and connecting student solutions were implemented at various levels. Monitoring student work tended to remain at Level 2 which included incorrect implementation of the practice. This paper closes with implications related to the skillful implementation of the five practices through a teacher community.

An Analysis of Instructional Elements on the Equal Sign and Equivalence in Grades 3 and 4 Elementary Mathematics Textbooks
선우진 Sunwoo Jin , 방정숙 Pang Jeongsuk
25(4) 459475, 2022
선우진 Sunwoo Jin , 방정숙 Pang Jeongsuk
DOI: JANT Vol.25(No.4) 459475, 2022
The equal sign and equivalence are the most basic and core concepts in elementary mathematics, but there has been lack of research on how to teach these concepts with textbooks. Given this, this study analyzed elementary mathematics textbooks in terms of three instructional elements (i.e., emphasizing the meaning of the equal sign as a relational symbol, dealing with an equation as an object for reasoning, and using an equation with a missing value). In particular, this study analyzed 10 different mathematics textbook series that are newly used in 2022 and examined the overall trends and characteristics for teaching the equal sign and equivalence. The results of this study showed that the activities emphasizing the meaning of the equal sign as a relational symbol were most noticeable but the activities dealing with an equation as an object for reasoning or using an equation with a missing value were relatively rare. Based on the results of the analysis, this study provides textbook writers with implications on what to further consider in covering the equal sign and equivalence.
