Attention and Attention Shifts of 5th General and Mathematically Gifted Students Based on the Types of Mathematical Patterns
이슬기 Yi Seulgi , 이광호 Lee Kwangho
22(1) 112, 2019
이슬기 Yi Seulgi , 이광호 Lee Kwangho
DOI: JANT Vol.22(No.1) 112, 2019
This study examined the attention and attention shift of general students and mathematically gifted students about pattern by the types of mathematical patterns. For this purpose, we analyzed eye movements during the problem solving process of 5th general and mathematically gifted students using eye tracker. The results were as follows: first, there was no significant difference in attentional style between the two groups. Second, there was no significant difference in attention according to the generation method between the two groups. The diversion was more frequent in the incremental strain generation method in both groups. Third, general students focused more on the comparison between noncontiguous terms in both attributes. Unlike general students, mathematically gifted students showed more diversion from geometric attributes. In order to effectively guide the various types of mathematical patterns, we must consider the distinction between attention and attention shift between the two groups.

Problems and Improvements in the Use of Grid Paper in Elementary Mathematics Textbooks
안병곤 Ahn Byoung Gon
22(1) 1327, 2019
안병곤 Ahn Byoung Gon
DOI: JANT Vol.22(No.1) 1327, 2019
The use of grid paper in elementary mathematics textbooks is used in numbers and calculations, figures and measurement areas. Among them, it is used most in the figure area. In spite of this utilization, it is necessary to supplement it because it is difficult to revise or supplement the trial and error that often occurs in the course of the course, as the process of using the textbook paper in the actual class.
The use of grid paper in elementary mathematics textbooks is used in numbers and calculations, figures and measurement areas. Among them, it is used most in the figure area. In spite of this utilization, it is necessary to supplement it because it is difficult to revise or supplement the trial and error that often occurs in the course of the course, as the process of using the textbook paper in the actual class. In this study, we tried to find out the usability of grid paper boards which can be used more effectively than the grid paper among the teaching aids presented in the 'Development of teaching aids standards for math class' of Korea Foundation for the Advancement of Science & Creativity(2017).
A questionnaire survey was conducted on the use of grid paper and grid paper board for teachers who actually use grid paper in elementary mathematics. As a result, we found out the achievement criteria of grid paper board utilization and investigated the study subject which is effective to use grid paper board. In particular, we have identified specific learning topics that are effective in each area and presented specific activities.

An Analysis of Double Scale Models in the Japanese Elementary Mathematics Textbooks
서은미 Seo Eunmi , 조선미 Cho Seonmi , 방정숙 Pang Jeongsuk
22(1) 2948, 2019
서은미 Seo Eunmi , 조선미 Cho Seonmi , 방정숙 Pang Jeongsuk
DOI: JANT Vol.22(No.1) 2948, 2019
Previous studies on double scale models, visual models with two different scales (Chong, 2015), have focused on double number line and little research has been conducted on how to employ double scale models in the elementary mathematics textbooks series. Given this, we analyzed the characteristics of double scale models in the Japanese elementary mathematics textbooks in the following aspects: (a) the contents of units where double scale models were used; (b) the purposes of using such models; (c) the types of such models tailored to the contents and grade levels; and (d) the characteristics of problem contexts dealing with the models. The results of this study showed that double scale models were effectively used to connect the contents related to multiplication, specifically for the contexts of ratio. Such models were addressed for students in a systematic and gradual way as the grade levels went up. Based on these results, this paper describes implications on how to use double scale models in mathematics textbooks.

A Study on Preservice Elementary Teachers’ Mathematical Beliefs about the Nature of Mathematics and the Mathematics Learning
김진호 Kim Jinho , 강은경 Kang Eun Kyung , 김상미 Kim Sangmee , 권성룡 Kwon Sungyong , 박만구 Park Mangoo , 조수윤 Cho Sooyun
22(1) 4964, 2019
김진호 Kim Jinho , 강은경 Kang Eun Kyung , 김상미 Kim Sangmee , 권성룡 Kwon Sungyong , 박만구 Park Mangoo , 조수윤 Cho Sooyun
DOI: JANT Vol.22(No.1) 4964, 2019
The purpose of the study was to examine the current status of prospective elementary school teachers’ mathematical beliefs. 339 future elementary school teachers majoring in mathematics education from 4 universities participated in the study. The questionnaire used in the TEDSM(Tatto et al., 2008) was translated into Korean for the purpose of the study. The researchers analyzed the preservice elementary teachers’ beliefs about the nature of mathematics and about mathematics learning. Also, the results of the survey was analyzed by various aspects. To determine differences between the groups, oneway analysis of variance was used. To check the relationship between beliefs about the nature of mathematics and about the mathematics learning, correlation analysis was used. The results of the study revealed that the preservice elementary teachers tends to believe that the nature of mathematics as ‘process of inquiry’ rather than ‘rules and procedures’ which is a view that mathematics as readymade knowledge. In addition, the preservice elementary teachers tend to consider ‘active learning’ as desirable aspects in mathematics teachinglearning practice, while ‘teacher’s direction’ was not.
We found that there were statistically significant correlation between ‘process of inquiry’ and ‘active learning’ and between ‘rules and procedures’ and ‘teacher direction’. On the basis of these results, more extensive and multifaced research on mathematical beliefs should be needed to design curriculum and plan lessons for future teachers.

A Study on Multiplication Expression Method by Visual Model
김주창 Kim Juchang , 이광호 Lee Kwnagho
22(1) 6582, 2019
김주창 Kim Juchang , 이광호 Lee Kwnagho
DOI: JANT Vol.22(No.1) 6582, 2019
In this study, students' multiplication expression method according to visual model was analyzed through paper test and eye tracking test. As a result of the paperpencil test, students were presented with multiplication formula. In the group model (number of individual pieces in a group) × (number of group) in the array model (column) × (row), but in the array model, the proportion of students who answered the multiplication formula in the (row) × (column). From these results, we derived the appropriate model presentation method for multiplication instruction and the multiplication expression method for visual model.

A Comparative Study on the Relation between Using Calculators in Math Lessons and Mathematics Achievement of Elementary School Students
최지선 Choi Ji Sun
22(1) 8394, 2019
최지선 Choi Ji Sun
DOI: JANT Vol.22(No.1) 8394, 2019
Current mathematics curriculum of South Korea suggests that students learn mathematics in school with calculators except that the aim of the math lessons is to achieve calculation skills, but we can’t be sure that elementary school students use calculators in math lessons of school. Actually we don’t have enough data to identify how many elementary school students use calculators in math lessons. The aims of this study are to compare the ratio of elementary school students using calculators in math lessons of school between 20 countries and to analyse the relation between using calculators in math lessons and the achievements of math through 4^{th} grade mathematics test of TIMSS 2015. The results of this study are two. One is that generally 4^{th} grade students did not use calculators in math lessons. The other result is that generally there is no relation between using calculators in math lessons and the achievements of the math test through 4^{th} grade mathematics test of TIMSS 2015. Only in Hong Kong SAR, students without using calculators have higher achievements than students using calculators. In England and USA, students using calculators have higher achievements than students without using calculators. Finally, researcher in this study suggests some implications on using calculator in elementary schools.

Tangram Task Modification for Exploring in Elementary Mathematics
유재근 Yoo Jaegeun , 박문환 Park Moon Hwan
22(1) 95111, 2019
유재근 Yoo Jaegeun , 박문환 Park Moon Hwan
DOI: JANT Vol.22(No.1) 95111, 2019
This study searched for the possibility of tangram activities through modifying the tasks of elementary school mathematics textbooks into content based open tasks. As a result of analyzing previous researches, it was confirmed the educational effect of the mathematical tasks transformation and the educational value of tangram activities. The analysis of the textbooks revealed that the tangram activities presented in the textbooks are likely to be at the level of play. It was tried to modify 2015 revised curriculum textbooktasks into content based open tasks. Based on this study, it could be expected advantages of task modification such as improvement of teachers' expertise and expectation of diverse reactions of students.
