An analysis on the level of cognitive demands of mathematical tasks set up by preservice elementary school teachers
권성룡 Sungyong Kwon
18(2) 6175, 2015
권성룡 Sungyong Kwon
DOI: JANT Vol.18(No.2) 6175, 2015
This study analyzed the characteristics of mathematical tasks including the level of cognitive demands set up by preservice elementary school teachers. 50 preservice teachers in G university of education who participated in their 4 weeks teaching practicum were selected as subjects. They planned and implemented mathematics lesson with their lesson plans. Lesson plans, video of their lessons, transcript of video were gathered and analyzed the characteristics of mathematical tasks used in their lesson. Through the analysis, several conclusions were drawn as follow. First, 78% of the subjects modified tasks in mathematics textbooks. Since modification or construction of mathematical tasks gives good chance for constructing mathematical task knowledge for teaching, more chance should be given to preservice teachers to construct new tasks or modify tasks in mathematics textbooks. Second, types of modification done by preservice teachers were categorized as number change(15.6%), situation change(78.1%) and material change(6.3%). As Chapman(2013) emphasized the importance of MtKT, preservice teachers must have more MtKT by understanding the characteristics of mathematical tasks. Third, the level of cognitive demands required by mathematical tasks were relatively low. 74% of mathematical tasks was lower cognitive demands and only 26% was higher cognitive demands. The level of cognitive demands of tasks in mathematics textbooks tended to be lowered by the directions given right after the tasks were given. In this respect, the structure of mathematics textbooks need to be changed.

A Development and Application of Independent Study Checklist for Mathematics Gifted Students
박정웅 Jeong Ung Bak , 이대현 Dae Hyun Lee
18(2) 7789, 2015
박정웅 Jeong Ung Bak , 이대현 Dae Hyun Lee
DOI: JANT Vol.18(No.2) 7789, 2015
In this study, an ``Independent Study Checklist`` for gifted mathematics students was developed and applied. The characteristics shown in the results after the ``Independent Study Checklist`` was applied to mathematics gifted students were analysed. The checklist was divided into six phases of the independent study process and included checking contents at each stage. Observations, student interviews and results of the process of ``Independent Study`` were collected and analysed to understand the characteristics of students` outcomes. The results from the application of the ``Independent Study Checklist`` suggest the followings. First, the ``Independent Study Checklist`` took the role of a selfcheck list to identify the process of the ``Independent Study``. Second, the check points of the ``Independent Study Checklist`` presented the view of discussion to gifted students. Third, the ``Independent Study Checklist`` was used as teaching material for teachers of gifted students. Fourth, ``Independent Study Checklist`` was optionally used according student`s study topics and method. Fifth, the checklist at each phase was continuously used during the whole process of ``Independent Study``. The teachers` interest and encouragement took the role of facilitating students` study process.

Effects of STEAM Program Development and Application for the 1st Grades of Elementary School
전미숙 Mi Suk Jun , 박문환 Moon Hwan Park
18(2) 91106, 2015
전미숙 Mi Suk Jun , 박문환 Moon Hwan Park
DOI: JANT Vol.18(No.2) 91106, 2015
The purpose of this study were to develop a MSTEAM program for first grades in elementary school and investigate the effects of the program on their learning motivation for the math subject and creative personality. For those purpose, this study set the following research questions. Research Question 1 : How will a MSTEAM program be devised applicable to first grades in elementary school? Research Question 2 : What kind of effect does a MSTEAM program have on the learning motivation and creative personality of students? The findings were as follows: First, lesson contents were reorganized by keeping the Unit 3 in the second semester of first grade in the current math curriculum under the convergence theme of "Build an environment friendly future city" to which the STEAM elements were added. Developed program promoted mathematical thinking ability for problem solving in the process of operating the number of blocks. Through the MSTEAM program, convergence thinking was created from a new perspective by exerting creativity in such process. Second, the STEAM program had effects on the learning motivation and creative personality of first graders in math subject. The ttest results show that the STEAM program developed in this study increased the fun and interest of students, helped with their concentration, and promoted their understanding of mathematical concepts. Therefore the MSTEAM program had positive impacts on the learning motivation and creative personality of first graders in math learning.

A Study of the Potentials of Math Based Convergence Instructional Model
김유경 Yukyung Kim , 방정숙 Jeongsuk Pang
18(2) 107122, 2015
김유경 Yukyung Kim , 방정숙 Jeongsuk Pang
DOI: JANT Vol.18(No.2) 107122, 2015
This research aims to suggest a mathbased convergence instructional model. The convergence instructional model with emphasis on problem solving ability was developed based on each subject and the STEAM model. Then, the appropriateness and limit of the classroom model were investigated, through examining the aspects of its realization in each stage of the class instruction model while enacting a four part lesson on 6th graders. As a result, each stage of the classroom instruction model influenced in helping the students discover various problem solving skills, critically examine the process of the solving, and attain positive perspectives on the classroom instruction. However, appropriate intervention of the teacher was needed to lead the students to further synthesize the explored issues in mathematics and to expand the scope of their emotional experience. This paper closes with suggestions in implementing math based convergence lessons.

The Influences of Experiences of Productive Failures on Mathematical Problem Solving Abilities and Mathematical Dispositions
박유나 Yuna Park , 박만구 Mangoo Park
18(2) 123139, 2015
박유나 Yuna Park , 박만구 Mangoo Park
DOI: JANT Vol.18(No.2) 123139, 2015
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the experiences of productive failures on students` mathematical problem solving abilities and mathematical dispositions. The experiment was conducted with two groups. The treatment group was applied with the productive mathematics failure program, and the comparative group was taught with traditional mathematics lessons. In this study, for quantitative analysis, the students were tested their understanding of mathematical concepts, mathematical reasoning abilities, students` various strategies and mathematical dispositions before and after using the program. For qualitative analysis, the researchers analyzed the discussion processes of the students, students`s activity worksheets, and conducted interviews with selected students. The results showed the followings. First, use of productive failures showed students` enhancement in problem solving abilities. Second, the students who experienced productive failures positively affected the changes in students` mathematical dispositions. Along with the more detailed research on productive mathematical failures, the research results should be included in the development of mathematics textbooks and teaching and learning mathematics.

An Analysis of Storytelling in Elementary Mathematics Textbooks focusing on Grade Three
신준식 Joonsik Shin
18(2) 141154, 2015
신준식 Joonsik Shin
DOI: JANT Vol.18(No.2) 141154, 2015
This study analyzed storytelling in mathematics textbooks for third graders, which had been developed according to the 2009 revised mathematics curriculum. Storytelling are supposed to be composed of elements such as message, conflicts, characters, and plot, all of which should be consistent with and focused on unit contents. Especially, conflicts in storytelling should be so obvious that children can take an initiative in learning tasks to solve the problems required by the tasks. The analysis of storytelling in the introduction part in teacher`s guides for the thirdgrade textbooks indicates the following: 1) messages are unclear; 2) conflicts are frequently absent (if any, they are unclear); 3) incidents attributable to textbook characters are insufficient; and 4) plots often lack plausibility. In order to achieve the purposes for which storytelling in mathematics textbooks is intended, storytelling should be reconstructed and improved, taking the roles that each component should serve into consideration.

The Effect Of Teachers` Reflection For Mathematics Classroom Instruction Focused on the cognitive demands of mathematical tasks
이은영 Eun Young Lee , 이광호 Kwangho Lee
18(2) 155173, 2015
이은영 Eun Young Lee , 이광호 Kwangho Lee
DOI: JANT Vol.18(No.2) 155173, 2015
The purpose of this study is to offer the implication for elementary school mathematics teaching by analyzing teachers` reflection on the cognitive demands of mathematical tasks they give in class. During the setup phase and the implementation phase in math class, the researchers analyzed the change of cognitive demands on mathematical tasks and the factors which had influence on such changes. After teachers` reflection on teaching, the researchers analyzed the change of cognitive demands on mathematical tasks and the factors which had influence on such changes in math classes. As a result, before teachers` reflection on the cognitive demands of mathematical tasks, the higherlevel demands of mathematical tasks had a tendency to decline. However, after teachers` reflection on the cognitive demands of mathematical tasks, higherlevel demands of mathematical tasks were maintained.
